Governments have been promoting biofuels for various stated aims—to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to substitute for oil imports, to enhance energy security, and/or to gain export income. Finding substitutes for oil imports is a high priority for industrialized countries such as the United States, European Union member states, and Brazil. Governments also claim that biofuels from crops will benefit rural communities by enhancing economic development and employment. To stimulate biofuel markets, governments give subsidies, set targets for biofuel use and provide research funds for its future technoscientific development.
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